European Networks of Technology Transfer

In the modern world, people are witnessing the dynamically developing market economy; bigger and bigger share of it lies in advanced technologies. The issue of technology transfer becomes an incredibly important element of raising the competitive advantage of the enterprises. The mentioned technology transfer process is differently defined. According to the most common definition, it includes handling exact knowledge and inventions directly to economic practice. The older meaning, based on the patents trade, design patents, licenses and „know-hows”, was ousted by the wider definition, which defines the technology transfer as many forms of popularizing the innovations, technical education and stages of implementing it into the sphere of production activity. The boundary between the sector of science and research and the procedure of fabrication keeps blurring.
 
Currently, the technology transfer means also the cooperation of European clusters, which is to counteract the European and non-EU economies. The partners in cooperation are, in many different combinations, scientific and research institutions as well as big, middle-size and small enterprises. The participants of the platforms may include 325 entities, which are located in 18 countries, including 21 large international clusters. The entity that leads to unification of these activities from the entire Europe - is EGTA (www.egta.eu). The European Green Technology Alliance - is European platform for technology and knowledge transfer about market and technological trends, which also contain some remarks and examples of good praxis in technology transfer. This base offers also innovational solutions in many important fields of global economy and contains the profiles of scientists and experts who directly cooperate with the initiators of the projects. As the members of EGTA, they coordinate particular operations; they are also present while discussing the conceptions and offer their help in implementing the ideas.
 
The activities of EGTA are divided into 6 parts in which we take actions, aiming in implementation of technologically better solutions into economical structures. They include both universal areas connected with food, health, transport and the fields incredibly important for economy and business.
 
 

INTERNET OF THINGS

 
Internet of Things (IoT)- is all about data. According to the estimation of Cisco in Global Cloud Index Study, by 2018 IoT will produce more than 400 Zettabytes of data, which means colossal business changes. This phenomenon can be explained by snow-ball effect: we attach higher and higher amount of things into the global network, which things process growing amount of information. But the core of IoT – which is even now described as “Internet of the future” – lies not only in the devices, but in their potential – storing of information. The initiator of disruptive project connected with use of IoT is South Korea, which built first in the world smart city on the island designed from 500 million tons of sand. “The city of future” is to become a metropolis of business and is called in this way due to millions of sensors available everywhere: on the streets, in schools, in office blocks and houses. This eccentric project, interpreted by many as the utopia of the modern world, will go down in history as the precursor of ultramodern business metropolis.
 
The key technologies, which significantly influence our lifestyle, work and studying are mobile technologies, which swayed also as trivial activities as shopping or driving a car. Even the industrial revolution did not cause such a radical explosion in technological innovations and economic growth all over the world. Nearly all of the fundamental human activities have been changed or even revolutionized by telephonic technology. Following the Cisco’s report “Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data traffic Forecast Update, 2011-2016” in 2016 the number of mobile devices connected to Internet will be higher than the number of Earth’s inhabitants. Mobile phone is not only the industry itself. It is also the base for excellent opportunities.
 
GreenCloud, as a part of the Smart IT Cluster (http://smartpl.org) technology constitutes a platform that receives data from a user device, and in a standardized way, provides that data to a user-selected applications. It currently presents a response to the users’ expectations of mobile technology, on the threshold of the information revolution. Its technology provides individuals with affordable cost of processing, storing and analyzing streams of „Big Data”, generated by sensors, mobile computers, and RFID readers. Is a system that could adapt to any application, introduced by the administrator or user. It is completely open to new applications and business developers of all kinds.
 
One of the most important motive forces of new products’ development are certain business demands, including constant quest for new and enhanced ways of saving both money and time. Many of the improvements and cheap alternatives for present systems used in industry are offered by the virtual reality. It has huge influence on many significant fields, including stock exchange, information management, virtual projects or virtual prototyping. As information can be made available earlier and more efficiently, companies have better control over the projects. Virtual reality for many smaller companies, huge corporations and for private investors seems to be a chance for making the quality of work better. All of them can lower the costs, increase the efficiency and transmit the data faster thanks to this idea.
 
The most significant for the companies is also the idea of gamification. HR leaders all over the world came to conclusion, that gamification is one of the most exciting new conceptions. The scientists discovered that playing games leads to releasing dopamine – neurotransmitter responsible for emotional processes, kinesthetic coordination and motivation connected with waiting for the reward. In these games reward system is molded properly, as to create certain customs among the participants, similar to these initiated by natural goods in environment – e.g. food or water. The game becomes an award by itself. This can be called and ideal motivation technique, widely used by corporations to reach higher efficiency of their employees, acceleration in realization of most important tasks and boost morale.
 
 
 

HEALTH

 
The European population is getting older extremely fast – that is way one of the most important issues is to provide appropriate health care. Apart from new medical technologies, such as nanotechnology and biotechnology, there is wide range of information and telecommunication technologies which lead to faster and more efficient exploration of data. Because of these results, the patients are offered quicker and better treatments.
 
GreenMed is an integrated system of monitoring and archiving of patient status, using the dynamic preview of data from telemedical sensors. The application is based on proprietary “cloudy” system - GreenCloud (see p.42). It allows one to collect, store and send data and vital signs of the patient on a distance. All medical information is transmitted to the server at specified time intervals, and stored, so that the patient, the doctor or the patient’s family can have easy access to them.
 
GreenMed possesses four main functions:
  • Patient Monitoring - Modern diagnostics in real time;
  • Search Assistance - interactive map, that includes hospitals, medical centers and pharmacies;
  • Patient Card – view the archived general and specialized test results, referrals and prescriptions;
  • On-line diagnostics - medical consultation with the specialist.
 
Telemonitoring of bodily functions or consultations with a doctor via Internet – for many people still sounds unrealistically, but telemedicine seems to be an integral and inevitable part of the future. More and more long-lasting ailments and diminishing amount of health care workers are the challenges of today’s world. Telemedicine, as a complementary way of supplying health services, can become an efficient solution. Medical nanotechnology is also very important, since thanks to it, medical accessories becoming increasingly  cheaper and efficient; tests and diagnosis - much relevant, which allows to quickly react on illness. Small computers and other accessories necessary for implantation, allow us to constantly monitor the health and identify the symptoms of illness in a very early phase. Thanks to it, the treatment becomes cheaper, more effective and accessible for higher number of people.
 
Recently one of the most important deployments of biotechnology is its use in providing medical treatments. Nowadays the applications of biotechnology in medicine and fields connected with health care include pharmacogenomics, genetic tests and genetic treatment. Recent biotechnology is widely used in inventing vaccines and new medicines, as well as for treating an illness and making organs for transplantations. Because of its wide specification, it constitutes a chance for millions of people, whose organisms do not react on standard ways of treatment.
 

 

LOW EMISSION TRANSPORT

 
Currently, transport is dominated by cars, being considered as the most convenient way of transport. The development of motorization is a positive sign from the economical point of view, but it also affects natural environment in a negative way. Road transport is the second largest source of greenhouse gases emission, responsible for 12% of the whole emission of carbon dioxide. The latest technological solutions in this field are important measures towards balanced, safe transport which could be based on ecological fuels and electric vehicles. It will also significantly increase the energy independence of particular countries. An example of the technology that is currently functioning on the EGTA platform (www.egta.eu), is the technology of conversion of internal combustion vehicles to electric technology. It was created by the team of specialists from Green Taxi company in cooperation with the team of experts from Green Convert LLC (http://carsev.pl). It was combined with car- sharing fleets of electric cars, which allows enterprises to get easy access the necessary vehicles, without incurring very high costs of their purchase.
 
Alternative fuels are both ecologically and economically beneficial solutions, as they lower the dependence on the import of oil. Internal production of ethanol from maize and other plants emits lower amount of greenhouse gases than conventional fuels; biodiesel produced from vegetable oil and animal fat usually emits less pollution of air than petroleum diesel. Also pure hydrogen used while powering fuel cells is not detrimental for the environment. The perfect examples of realization of green public transport are these cities, which combine public transport with innovational system of bikes and electric bikes rentals. In the future this mechanism could be integrated addition to public transport, based on the same system of urban charters, bus and tram stops. The example of alternative mobility is also car sharing of electric and hybrid cars, which are a good solution for the drivers also because of the lack of responsibilities connected with maintaining the vehicle: its storage and technical supervision.

RENEWABLE ENERGY

 
Diversification of energy sources, improvement of the energetic efficiency and reaching energy independence are now the strategic aims in highly developed countries and the main priorities in EU programs. One of the reasons for which they should be implemented as soon as possible is the huge exploitation of conventional energy sources, such as petroleum and coal. Their exploitation is time-consuming and expensive, what is more – it has negative impact on the environment. Another important thing that induces to reduce the use of these materials are increasing costs of oil, constantly running down. According to the latest research it is possible that the humanity will suffer from the lack of petroleum in 40 years. That is why reaching the stable economic growth development of innovational energy resources is so important. 
 
One of very few low emission technologies which are thought to be increasing on a broad scale is solar energy. Last year brought many improvements in this field, e.g. sudden gain in power and efficiency, as well as development of creative business models, which encouraged housing developers to investments in solar systems. Receiving energy from Sun does not create any side effects, detrimental emissions or impoverishment of natural resources; installation of the devices on architectonical objects does not really influence the landscape. Nevertheless, constant works on implementing this solution into life on a broad scale is necessary. Despite the fact that sunlight reaches the whole surface of Earth, its lightning is not regular and depends on latitude, season or time of day; the presence of pollution in atmosphere or high nebulosity unable people to use this source of energy efficiently. Nevertheless it is estimated that 20 years of solar installation’s exploitation supporting electric heating will lower the emission of sulfur dioxide by 500 kg and carbon dioxide even by 60 t!1 
 
Small wind power stations are widely used in powering of self-sufficient telecommunication and navigation systems, households and summer houses; they also help in lightening freestanding objects and many other structures that are placed far away from the energy network. Small wind generators often cooperate with photovoltaic modules or diesel generators in hybrid systems, which allow implementing unfailing and optimal satisfaction of energy demand. However, as to implement these solutions into life, there is a need of numerous research and measurement which should not last shorter than for a year. According to their results in case of turbines that are to be installed, we are able to estimate the amount of potential production of energy from exact area. The best places are the ones, where the frequency of strong winds 10-20 m/s is the highest one. New technologies in this field are being developed and appear nearly every year.
 
GVT - Green Vertical Turbine (or Vertical wind turbine) is an innovative wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation, which has a number of features, distinguishing it a from other available solutions on the market (for instance, wind turbines with a vertical and horizontal axis). GVT is distinguished by the technology used, through which the technical parameters of both outclass powers and vertical wind turbines with horizontal axis of rotation. GVT modular wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation, is made up of, joined together, three meter segments and is configurable in the power range from 20 kW to 500 kW. Powers of GVT are characterized by high efficiency of wind energy, up to 70%, which provides a favorable correlation of price to the effects of power-work and significantly reduces energy costs.
 
There are also known certain technical, economic and environmental benefits from receiving water energy, which is very important factor contributing to the future compilation of energy among the whole world, especially in fast developing countries. These countries have huge and constantly growing demand for electric energy and water power is the most significant source of renewable energy. It is responsible for about 16,5% of the entire and is considered to be one of the most profitable sources of new generation. The main role in developing the low emission energy system is storage of energy. It provides access to reservoirs, necessary in case of break in providing renewable energy. Locally, it can improve the management of distribution networks and lowering the costs. It can also make  the implementation of renewable energy resources into the market easier, relieve the efficiency of industry and energy distribution; it can also help to stabilize the prices on energy market, simultaneously providing higher security of energy supply. It can also become an important input into developing smart grid conception on every level of voltage.
 
 

ALIMENT AND WATER

 
Modern science provides more and more information about the nourishment in eatables and their influence on human health. Our health prophylaxis is mostly based on preventing the ailments by conscious alimenting. As a result of the consumers’ (more conscious in the area of nourishment) demand, there is uncountable number of products on the global market that are not only nutritious, but also ecological. From the other side, in many countries, due to long-lasting complications, the sector of water is suffering. It makes an increasing problem in the fields of providing water and sanitary services.
 
There is constant lack of pure, safe water. World Health Organization (WHO) has set international guidelines for drinking water; thanks to them is was found, that more than 1,1 mld of people have no access to clean water. It is predicted that until 2025 the significant part of world’s population (more than 3,5 mld of people) will be living in areas with serious lack of water. Even now half of the world’s hospital places is kept by patients suffering from waterborne illnesses. Many of them could have been saved by providing secure technology of desalination and purification of drinking water.
 
 

Green Water I - ozone water purification 

 
Problems with the access to clean and fresh water may be faced in almost all parts of the world. Taking into account the scale of the problem, in order to eliminate it, there must be used a very efficient and cost effective methods of water and wastewater treatment. The method of Green Water I is based on the purification of water by ozone micro-bubbles. This innovative system reduces the operating costs of sewage treatment plants by almost 75%.
 
 

Green Water II - an innovative method of desalination

 
Desalination represents one of the most interesting applications of solar energy. This is a method of desalination of salt water by means of solar radiation. In some parts of our world, the fresh water is represented in a limited amounts. At the same time salt water and strong solar radiation are present in excess. While producing fresh water, it is possible to produce electricity. This solution is environmentally friendly and possess an alternative to conventional systems, powered by fossil fuels. The Green Water II - is independent of the electrical network. XXI century brought up ailments, caused by poor nutrition. Obesity, metabolic illnesses, ailments of cardiovascular system, diabetes, cancer or problems with immunological system are the ones, for which diet is mostly responsible. Proper change of nutrition, lifestyle and habits is becoming the new strategy of treatment. The last few years also brought significant development in designing bioactive ingredients of functional food, which – due to its beneficial influence on health – is thought to be promising alternative for supplements.
 
In the last ten years the hot topic of discussions and research was also printing the aliment. 3D print offers many potential profits. It seems to be health and safe for the environment solution – it can help convert the alternative ingredients, such as proteins from algae, leaves of beetroots or insects into tasty products. It also makes a possibility to personalize the groceries, thanks to the opportunity of designing food according to individual needs and preferences.
 
 

INDUSTRY

 
The idea of converting the modern sector of industry into more efficient and less polluting technologies is the main point of the actual strategy of economic development. The most significant conception is “zero waste”, which means management of the products and recycling process, as to regain all of the materials that can be used again, without burying or incinerating them. Realizing “zero waste” program is to eliminate the whole delivery into the ground, water or air, which are the real danger for the plants’, animals’ and human health. It is also worth considering, that the base of this pro-ecological idea is the global change of lifestyle and conscious management of rubbish.
 
“Zero waste” project is also the response for the lack of materials. Innovational materials engineering lets us produce from various substances, including waste materials. Even now there is wide use of waste materials in production of many makings from building industry and mining. The use of products designed due to innovational technologies lets also lower the emission of greenhouse gases. EGTA (www.egta.eu) develops and promotes innovative environmental technology, called Pyroliza. It is a process of depolymerizing the plastic to the form of paraffin. They are processed in the plastic waste through the cleavage of the hydro car bon chains under the effect of temperature, absence of oxygen and using a catalyst to give a product with novel properties. The final product of the process of catalytic depolymerization is a component of liquid fuels, synthetic paraffin, which is a component of diesel and heating oil substitute. The process can be seen as a waste management system or as a method of manufacturing high-energy, intermediate for the energy industry. The technology operates in a pressure-sealed mode, without causing any emissions into the air or water. The resulting product is of the highest chemica quality, uniform and constant in terms of physic-chemical indicators. Raw materials are the finely divided waste plastics, shredded vehicle tires, or other types of wastes.
 
For the last 15 years European Union has implemented many rules which are to develop the technologies in favor of recycling. These regulations include the establishments about recycling of waste materials and products in electric and electronic devices, vehicles withdrawn from exploitation, various packing materials, batteries, waste materials from households, building and demolition industry. The progress in technology, including biotechnology designs new possibilities in management of waste material: both in their incapacitation and reusing. Simultaneously, recycling promotes other important economical and social benefits: support of innovations (e.g. with use of waste materials) and secure access to critical resources. Recycling means a lot in gaining the main aim of European and worldwide politics in taking care about environment; it means changing the economy into ecological one, which generates the welfare combined with healthy environment for present and future generations.
 
 

THE BRIDGE FOR NEW SOLUTIONS

 
Full use of intellectual potential of scientific institutes and implementing the latest technologies create a chance for fast development of innovational companies and institutions. Implementing the idea of balanced development on a broad scale will require from European and global economies concentrating their attention on technology transfer. That is why so important initiative like European Green Technology Alliance was raised. It is to work in favor of developing the economic security of less developed countries, raising the quality of life and the bloom of the balanced development’s idea. Wide knowledge of many experts, innovational projects and expertise in implementing groundbreaking projects make EGTA the significant binder between the world of fast developing technologies and the economic sphere with its demand for new solutions. Technology transfer is not only the alignment of chances and incorporation of the new, business conceptions. It is also the chance for making the quality of life better through intelligent economy, which – thanks to technical and scientific amendments – implements scientific and development more efficiently, gaining new solution for the old problems.
 
Source: Green Economy
According to the forecasts of the Global Wind Energy Council, the role of wind energy
around the world will steadily increase in upcoming years. All analyzed possible
scenarios for growth of this market anticipate constant growth of the total wind capacity
and will reach over 2,500,000 MW by 2030.
In the modern world, people are witnessing the dynamically developing market economy; bigger and bigger share of it lies in advanced technologies. The issue of technology transfer becomes an incredibly important element of raising the competitive advantage of the enterprises.